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References Suggestions

Standard Name


Gene Synonym(s)

ECK3775, b3783, JW3756, nitA, nusD, psuA, rnsC, sun, tsu, psu, sbaA, suA[1], hdf, tabC

Product Desc.

transcription termination factor Rho; polarity suppressor[2][3];

Component of transcription termination factor Rho[3]

Transcription termination factor Rho; bicyclomycin target[4]

Product Synonyms(s)

transcription termination factor[1], B3783[2][1], RnsC[2][1], Tsu[2][1], Sun[2][1], NusD[2][1], Psu[2][1], SbaA[2][1], PsuA[2][1], NitA[2][1], Rho[2][1] , ECK3775, hdf, JW3756, nitA, nusD, psuA, rnsC, sbaA, sun, tabC, tsu, b3783

Function from GO

Biological Process

Knock-Out Phenotype

transcription unit(s): rhoL[2], rhoL-rho[2], rho

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  • The rho gene is often misannotated as a polarity suppressor. Mutations in rho suppress polarity.[5][6][7][8][9] Wild type rho is the source of polarity.
  • rho has been shown to be an essential gene (Das, 1976; Bubunenko, 2007).[4]
  • rho is required to maintain genomic integrity by resolving transcription/replication conflicts [10]


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  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Riley, M. et al. (2006) Nucleic Acids Res 34:1-6 (corrected supplemental data from B. Wanner)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 EcoCyc (release 10.6; 2007) Keseler, IM et al. (2005) Nucleic Acids Res. 33(Database issue):D334-7
  3. 3.0 3.1 EcoCyc (release 11.1; 2007) Keseler, IM et al. (2005) Nucleic Acids Res. 33(Database issue):D334-7
  4. 4.0 4.1 EcoGene: Rudd, KE (2000) EcoGene: a genome sequence database for Escherichia coli K-12. Nucleic Acids Res 28:60-4.
  5. Das, A et al. (1976) Isolation and characterization of conditional lethal mutants of Escherichia coli defective in transcription termination factor rho. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73 1959-63 PubMed EcoliWiki page
  6. Korn, LJ & Yanofsky, C (1976) Polarity suppressors defective in transcription termination at the attenuator of the tryptophan operon of Escherichia coli have altered rho factor. J. Mol. Biol. 106 231-41 PubMed EcoliWiki page
  7. Belfort, M & Oppenheim, AB (1976) Efficient suppression of the requirement for N function of bacteriophage lambda by a Rho-defective E.coli suA mutant. Mol. Gen. Genet. 148 171-3 PubMed EcoliWiki page
  8. Richardson, JP & Carey, JL 3rd (1982) rho Factors from polarity suppressor mutants with defects in their RNA interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 257 5767-71 PubMed EcoliWiki page
  9. Das, A et al. (1978) Interaction of RNA polymerase and rho in transcription termination: coupled ATPase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75 4828-32 PubMed EcoliWiki page
  10. Washburn, RS & Gottesman, ME (2011) Transcription termination maintains chromosome integrity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108 792-7 PubMed EcoliWiki page